UBUHAMYA: Imvano y’umutwe wa M23 no gukorana bya hafi na Leta y’u Rwanda

UBUHAMYA: Imvano y’umutwe wa M23 no gukorana bya hafi na Leta y’u Rwanda

M23 ni umwe mu mitwe yitwaje intwaro ihubanganya umutekano n’umudendezo by’abaturage, ikazunguza u Burasirazuba bwa Repubulika iharanira Demokalasi ya Congo. Abayobozi ba DR Congo bahora bashinja u Rwanda gufasha uyu mutwe, gusa u Rwanda rubihakana rwivuye inyuma. Ukuri kwabyo kwaba ari ukuhe?

Ku wa 29 Werurwe 2022, ingabo za leta ya DR Congo (FARDC) zatangaje ko abarwanyi b'umutwe wa M23 bafashijwe n'ingabo z'u Rwanda ari bo bateye ibirindiro byazo ku misozi ya Chanzu na Runyoni muri Rutshuru.

Umuvugizi w'ingabo z'u Rwanda (RDF) yahaye BBC itangazo ry'umukuru w'Intara y'Iburengerazuba rivuga ko "ingabo z'u Rwanda zitari mu mirwano hakurya muri DRC".

Nubwo biheruka kuvugwa uku, ariko iyi mvugo imaze imyaka irenga 11, kuva uyu mutwe wa M23 washingirwa mu Burasirazuba bwa DRCongo mu ntangiriro z'ikinyacumi gishize.

M23 Yavuye he?

Mu mpera za 2006, Nkundabatware Mihigo Laurent (Laurent Nkunda) yivumbuye ku gisirikare na Leta ya DRCongo yavugaga ko ihutaza abaturage bavuga ikinyarwanda, agana iy'ishyamba, aho yashingiye ishyaka rya 'CNDP'.

Laurent wari General kandi yanashinze umutwe w'ingabo zikaze za 'CNDP' ziganjemo izo yavanye mu gisirikare cya DRCongo, ziyongeraho urubyiruko rutuye mu bice by'u Burasirazuba bw'iki gihugu, havugwa ikinyarwanda cyane.

Uyu mutwe wubatse ibirindiro ndetse n'igisirikare gikomeye cyabanje gukorera muri Teritwari za Masisi na Rutshuru kigahangana n'ingabo za DRCongo ndetse kikajya kinanyuzamo kikarasa umutwe wa FDRL wiganjemo abasize bakoze Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda mu 1994.

Utu duce CNDP yubatsemo ibirindiro mbere, dutuwemo n'abanyarwanda barimo abahunze ibitero byibasiraga abatutsi mu mwaka 1959 ndetse n'abahunze u Rwanda mu 1994 ubwo ingabo zari iza RPA zari zimaze gufata u Rwanda, ingabo zari iza leta (EX-FAR) zigahungana n'imiryango yazo bajya ahahoze ari Zaire.

Guhangana kwa CNDP na FDRL ni kimwe mu byagenderwagaho na leta yari iyobowe na Joseph Kabira wavugaga ko byanze bikunze u Rwanda rwahaga ubufasha umutwe wa CNDP wahanganaga n'ingabo za Leta, FDRL n'ingabo za LONI icyarimwe.

Uyu mutwe wari uyobowe na Laurent Nkunda, Soultani Makenga na Bosco Ntaganda bose bahoze mu gisirikare cya RPA, mu 2008 wateguye kandi ugaba ibitero bikaze kuri FDRL n'ingabo za Leta, aho umuryango w'abibumbye wabaruye ko abaturage barenze Miliyoni 1 bahungiye mu bindi bice by'igihugu.

Mu mpera z'uwo mwaka, Leta ya Joseph Kabira yari isumbirijwe n'ingabo za Laurent Nkunda zabarirwaga mu bihumbi 10 gusa, yatangiye kwemera ko habaho ibiganiro by'amahoro hagati yayo n'umutwe wa CNDP ndetse biza kugerwaho ku ya 23 Werurwe 2009.

Mbere gato y'uko aya masezerano asinywa, inkuru yabaye kimomo ko Laurent Nkunda yarenze imbibi za DRCongo akaza mu Rwanda, aho byiswe ko yafatiwe mu mujyi wa Rubavu, akajyanwa i Kigali gukurikiranwa ku byaha yaregwaga na DRCongo.

Leta ya DRCongo yasabye kenshi kohererezwa Laurent Nkunda ngo ashyikirizwe ubutabera, ariko amaso yayo yaheze mu kirere. Kuva Nkundabatware yagera mu Rwanda, ntaho yaburanishijwe ndetse leta ya DRCongo ivuga ko adafunzwe ahubwo abayeho mu buzima busanzwe.

Amasezerano y'amahoro yasinyiwe i Goma hagati ya DRCongo na CNDP, yavugaga ko abarwanyi b'uyu mutwe bagomba kujyanwa mu ngabo za DRCongo ndetse Leta ikiyemeza gucungira umutekano abaturage bayo bavuga ururimi rw'ikinyarwanda.

Muri Werurwe 2012, benshi mu bahoze mu gisirikare cya CNDP, bavuze ko leta ya DRCongo itubahiriza amasezerano yo kugarura amahoro yasinywe ku ya 23 Werurwe 2009, bituma bitandukanya na Leta, bashinga bushya umutwe w'ingabo bawitirira iyo tariki ku izina rya 'Mouvement de 23 Mars / M23'.

M23 ntiyashyize imbaraga mu byo kugira umutwe wa politiki, ahubwo abayigize bashyize imbaraga ahanini mu gukomeza igisirikare cyabo cyari kije kuzonga ingabo za DRCongo zidafite imbaraga zihambaye.

Ku ya 18 Ugushyingo 2012, M23 yateguje ihita inatangiza ibitero bikomeye ku ngabo za DRCongo, byatumye nyuma y'iminsi ibiri gusa, aba barwanyi bafata byuzuye umujyi wa Goma ari na wo uhana imbibi n'umujyi wa Gisenyi uri mu Burengerazuba bw' u Rwanda.

M23 yatakambiye ingabo za Loni (Monusco), izisaba kudafasha ingabo za DRCongo mu mirwano, byasobanuraga ko uyu mutwe washakaga kuyobora Kivu y'amajyaruguru.

Icyo gihe, Lambert Mende wari Umuvugizi wa Leta ya DRCongo yabwiye BBC ko bazi neza ko u Rwanda ari rwo ruri inyuma y'ibitero bya M23, ariko avuga ko igihugu cye kizirwanaho kandi kigatsinda kuko ari inshingano.

Joseph Kabila Kabange wayoboraga DRCongo yasabye abaturage ba Goma kwigaragambya bakirukana M23, ariko abaturage basaga naho ntacyo bibabwiye, ahubwo bamwe na bamwe bumvikana babwira New York Times ko M23 ntacyo ibatwaye.

Ku ya 23 Ugushyingo 2012, M23 yafashe umujyi wa Sake ndetse yegera imisozi ya Mushaki, Kirotshe na Kingi, ariko ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw'isi bitabarira hafi, bituma M23 isubira mu mashyamba mu mpera z'uko kwezi.

Igitutu cyari cyinshi kuri Leta y' u Rwanda yashinjwaga gufasha M23, ariko Guverinoma yakomeje guhakana yivuye inyuma ibyo kugirana umubano n'uyu mutwe wari uyobowe n'abahoze mu gisirikare cya RPA cyabohoye u Rwanda muri Nyakanga 1994.

Ntaganda Jean Bosco wavukiye mu majyaruguru y' u Rwanda ni umwe mu bayoboraga imirwano ya M23, mu gihe kandi hari Makenga Soultani na Runiga Rugerero Jean Marie bari bafatanyije kuyobora umutwe.

Muri Werurwe 2013, General Ntanganda Bosco yishyikirije Ambasade ya Amerika mu Rwanda, nyuma yoherezwa mu rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha ruri i La Haye mu Buholandi, aho ari kuburanishwa ku byaha by'intambara aregwa.

M23 yasigaye iyobowe na Makenga Soultani uyobora umutwe wa gisirikare, mu gihe Runiga Jean Marie na Bisimwa Bertrand bayoboye umutwe wa Politiki. M23 yabaye nk'icitse intege igana mu mashyamba y'ibirunga ahuriweho na DRCongo, u Rwanda na Uganda, aho yakomeje kwisuganyiriza.

Mu mpera za 2021, M23 yongeye kubura ibitero muri teritwari ya Rutshuru, ihangana n'ingabo za FARDC ndetse kugeza n'ubu ruracyageretse.

Kugeza n'ubu, Leta ya DRCongo iracyashinja u Rwanda gufasha umutwe wa M23, ariko u Rwanda na M23 ntibasiba gutsembera kure ibyo kumenyana no gukorana.

Mu kiganiro Umuvugizi wa M23, Willy Ngoma, aherutse kugirana na BBC muri Mata 2022, yavuze ko M23 ari igisirikare kurwanira abaturage, idafite ubufasha na buto ikura ku kindi gihugu.

Ubuhamya:

Umwe mu bahoze mu barwanyi ba M23 mu 2012, yagiranye ikiganiro n'umunyamakuru wa TheFacts.rw, avuga ko adashidikanya ko u Rwanda 'rufasha cyane' umutwe wa M23, kuva kera.

Uyu musore uri mu kigero cy'imyaka 26 twahaye izina rya 'Xalio' nk'uko yabyifuje, yatangiye avuga uko yisanze muri M23.

The Facts: Ni gute wagiye muri M23?

Xalio: Twari abana, abantu baraje ku kibuga cy'umupira batubwira ko bagiye kuduha akazi keza mu Ruhengeri (i Musanze), nyuma twisanga mu birunga, duhita duhinduka abasirikare ku ngufu..

The Facts: Ko uvuga nkaho mwari benshi?

Xalio: Tuva mu Mu mudugudu wacu twari batanu kuko abasaga n'aho ari abana bato bo ntabwo bemerewe kujyana natwe, gusa nasanzeyo abandi banana twiganaga bari bamazeyo iminsi.

The Facts: Ni bande babatwaraga, wowe wavuye he?

Xalio: Ntabwo wapfa kubamenya gusa bari abanyarwanda buzuye. badukuye iwacu mu Kidaho (Mu karere ka Burera)..."

The Facts: Mwanyuraga he?

Xalio: Bus yazamukiye mu Kinigi, gusa izindi nzira sinazimenya kuko byari mu mwijima kandi nari nkiri mutoya rwose... Nawe urabyumva umuntu wigaga muri 'Primaire' ntabyo nari kumenya.

The Facts: Ubuzima bwo mu ishyamba bwakugendekeye bute?

Xalio: Njye nagize amahirwe cyane kuko nkigerayo nabaye Escot w'umu-Coloner () ntacyo nari mbaye rwose, naryaga neza nkanaryama... njye ntaribi rwose.

The Facts: Abandi wabonaga babayeho bate?

Xalio: Yaaaa... byari umuriro, Monusco yaturasagaho, FARDC ikaturasa n'izindi nyeshyamba, buri munsi twashyinguraga abana.

The Facts: M23 ni bantu ki?

Xalio: M23 ni umutwe urimo abanyarwanda kuko n'ubundi urwanira abanyarwanda. Abanya-Masisi n'abanyamulenge bicwa buri munsi leta ikabirebera, M23 kuri njye yakabaye inagumaho.

The Facts: M23 ivugwaho kwica abasivire no gufata ku ngufu abagore. Wabibonyeho?

Xalio: Ntihabura indiscipline zabikoraga ariko twari twarabibujijwe. Uretse na M23 ubwayo na Laurent Nkunda mu gihe cye ntiyemeraga ko ingabo ze zihutaza abaturage. Ugiye guhutaza abantu ntaho waba utaniye na FDRL yamaze abantu.

The Facts: Wavuye muri M23 gute?

Xalio: 'Man'.... mbikubwiye byose wagira ngo ni filime, twamaze iminsi 3 tugenda kandi tutarya tutaryama, tutanazi neza inzira. Gutoroka byari 'Hatari' kuko hari abo bafataga bakabica tureba, ubwo kugenda rero byari ukwiyemeza gupfa cyangwa gukira.

Twavuye mu ishyamba mu kwa mbere 2013, bari baratwogoshe mu mutwe hagati kugira ngo bajye batumenya ariko njye n'abandi basore bane twanyuze mu mashyamba duhinguka kuri Kabumba (Rubavu) duhuye n'abasirikare b' u Rwanda babanza kudufunga nk'iminsi 4 nyuma baratureka turataha.

The Facts: Ni iki ugenderaho uvuga ko u Rwanda rufasha M23?

Xalio: Niba twarajyanwe muri Congo n'abanyarwanda tukagenda mu modoka za (Kompanyi izwi itwara abagenzi) kandi ntihagire uhagarika imodoka, wabihakana uhereye he?

Ikindi, Niba abayobora M23 hafi ya bose ari abarwaniye FPR, urumva ari nde wabima ubufasha kandi n'ubundi barwanira abanyarwanda?

Nta kuntu wambwira ko u Rwanda rudafasha M23 niba naratashye, abarikare b'u Rwanda bakantuka ngo kuki mvuye ku rugamba....Politike iransetsa, M23 idafashijwe n' u Rwanda ntiyabaho.

The Facts: Mwakoze kutuganiriza:

Xalio: Mwakoze namwe.

Ubu buhamya n'ubundi The Facts yahawe na bamwe mu bahoze ari abarwanyi ba M23 bo mu turere two mu majyaruguru n' u Burengerazuba bw' u Rwanda, bwagenderwaho habaho gutekereza niba koko u Rwanda ruha inkunga umutwe wa M23.